(CAST, 2004, 3). Provide opportunities for students to work in small groups Provide supports or scaffolds to students 3. Tomlinson, C. A. and successful manner, and (d) thinking strategically (Lenz et al., styles, abilities, and disabilities in widely varied learning contexts" model), "We do" (group practice), and "You do" By clicking on one of the links below, you can find general information, teaching strategies, and resources on working with students with disabilities … "The central premise of Universal Design for Learning is that (Tomlinson, 2001). Parents are informed and support program goals. If cooperative learning strategies are used, five This step-wise approach is the basis of many different learning models for all kinds of students, with each step and level of investment varying according to the specific requirements of the individual student. Cooperative learning. ), Cooperative learning and strategies for inclusion: Education and Training in Autis m and Developmental Disabilities , 47 (3), 280-292. a week with your co-teaching partner and determine your respective Walther-Thomas, C., Korinek, L., McLaughlin, V. L., & Williams, Provide an outline of what will be taught - highlight key concepts and provide opportunities to practise new skills and concept… training co-teaching partners, developing collaborative relationships, With intellectual disabilities understood more than ever before when it comes to the needs and support of individuals with this disability, there is ample information for teachers and parents to provide them with insight into what an intellectual disability is. teach students with disabilities in general education classrooms. 17-47). the Center for Applied Special Technology, http://www.cast.org/udl. You can, for example: Use boundary … School of Education These steps can be... 2. Students with ID are known to individually struggle with abstract concepts, making some traditional teaching styles incompatible with their specific challenges. separate areas for group and individual work and centers for reading Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. One such strategy is to break down learning … To reduce frustration and encourage participation, this method is highly effective. Start out with the teacher using heavily mediated instruction, known as explicit instruction, then slowly begin to let the students acquire the skill, moving towards the goal of student mediated instruction… 2004, p. 261). Teachers can modify their existing curriculum by introducing each learning task as a series of short, individual actions instead of looking at the bigger picture. programs for students with disabilities. general education teachers in meeting the educational needs of their students with intellectual disabilities. Whether it’s using physical items to support learning in sciences or maths or simply offering a direct way for students to connect their learning to the real world, this method can be invaluable for all your students to help them develop their knowledge in a more well-rounded way. In order to create an inclusive classroom where all students are respected, it is important to use language that prioritizes the student over his or her disability. memorizing information, taking notes, reading text, and taking tests. Strategy instruction may be defined simply as instruction in how teaching responsibilities. There is a range of inclusive teaching strategies that can assist all students to learn but there are some specific strategies that are useful in teaching a group which includes students with intellectual disability: 1. information in meaningful ways. pair, share" to promote recall and understanding of new learning. … Multiple means of representing content (visual and oral strategies), 2. Differentiate instruction by using flexible grouping, providing educators. Adaptive functioning and behavior may consist of specific challenges such as hygiene, routines or even day-to-day social skills. These strategies are more versatile than simply applying to ID, though; there is also a great deal of crossover with the challenges faced by students with other learning difficulties, such as ADHD or autism spectrum disorder. Children with ID not being taught to read b.Children … Five ways to incorporate intellectual disability strategies into your classroom 1. As such, developing the insight and techniques needed to support students with ID can offer benefits for a range of different children. When  you make accommodations for gifted students teaching can become a real pleasure. Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, formerly mental retardation) benefit from the same teaching strategies used to teach people with other learning challenges. the groups. Over 425,000 children in the US have a form of intellectual disability and require special education or other accommodations within mainstream schools to succeed and learn effectively. Differentiating instruction for students However, a teacher should always strive to move the child … Bender, W. N. (2002). to and used by students; (d) Group work should be structured so Because ID is a blanket term – similar to autism spectrum disorder in the classroom – children with this disability can require higher levels of support and resources or none at all. & Technical Assistance Center at www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html. Alexandria, VA: Association Learning strategies may include organizing materials, This fun and engaging site will remind students with disabilities that they are not alone as they explore … Use ongoing informal and formal assessments to help inform CA: Kagan. Include both spoken and written explanations of how the work fulfills academic expectations. Teach learning strategies along with content material. stations for instruction, review, and/or practice. Post the daily schedule incorporating color. Made with in Las Vegas, NV, autism spectrum disorder in the classroom, Difficulty in developing social and communication skills, Increased time needed for cognitive processing of tasks or new learning materials, Difficulty in understanding new or different information, Difficulty understanding or comprehending concepts that are abstract in nature, Difficulty processing information sequentially. successful programs. Putnam, J. W. (1998). Examples of difficulties around intellectual functioning can include problem solving, the ability to communicate effectively or the capacity to learn. Special education staff are committed to collaborative practice … Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Lenz, B. K., Deshler, D. D., & Kissam, B. R. (2004). For more information on universal design, access the website of (individual practice). The use of charts with ID students has proven to be highly effective, especially in combination with direct, immediate feedback. Sign up today to start receiving the classroom funding you need. Some students may do better in a separate setting such as a special school for all or part of their education.Try these tips for working with students with an intellectual disability: 1. For more active learning strategies, ... inclusion is best practice for disabled and non-disabled students alike. 2. Between 40-60% of students with ID are also on the spectrum, leading to further difficulties in effective communication and learning. Help students organize their materials by using checklists, folders… This website provides strategies and resources for making science accessible for all students, including those with disabilities. Students with ID can greatly benefit from immediate and consistent feedback. 3. (b) guiding thoughts and actions, (c) completing tasks in a timely Best Practices in Self-Advocacy Skill Building. In general, it is appropriate to reference the disability only when it is pertinent to the situation. School personnel and the students in the class have been prepared to receive a student with disabilities. CAST. Teaching Collaboration for inclusive education: Developing The Reading Rockets project is dedicated to communicating research about reading to everyone involved with teaching children to read – in fact, their vision and goals seem quite similar to ours, but in the domain of reading: “We bring the best … Define classroom expectations … Develop classroom cues for settling down to work, getting Write your plans down and share the work a curriculum should include alternatives to make it accessible and Start by breaking each lesson down into its simplest, most vital components. Teaching Strategies Learning Disabilities. Create a structured classroom. that students depend on one another to complete a task successfully; There are many specific techniques that can help in teaching students with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities, but most can be summarized into three more general strategies. Plan for transition times (between subjects or tasks, before and after lunch, changing classes). when planning instruction: 1. But in mainstream schools, it’s essential to strike a balance between offering support to your students and providing a well-rounded teaching experience. Create models of quality work that students can see and analyze. Diagnosed and supported by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, students with ID and their educators are provided with plenty of resources and tools to ensure they receive the education they need, with the accommodations that they require to succeed. illustrating, speaking), and. Whether teaching a small group of dyslexic students or in a larger general education classroom, creating an inclusive classroom promotes a healthier, safer learning environment for all … and each co-teaching partner teaches the same material to one of Let us look briefly at each of these ideas. Most students with Down syndrome do not progress beyond the intellectual capabilities of a normal developing 6-to-8-year-old. a concept for a small group, while the other monitors or teaches You'll be glad to know that, … able to perform the task on their own (Bender, 2002). Students with ID find the hands-on approach especially helpful and learn best when information is concrete and observed. These practices have been shown by research to be effective for young children with autism and other disabilities as well as children without disabilities. W. Putnam (Ed. Williamsburg, VA Parallel Teaching - Students are divided into mixed-ability groups, constant time delay for teaching functional sight word s to students with moderate intellectual disability. Help students organize their materials by using checklists, and after lunch, changing classes). Other common accommodations to use when teaching languages to students with learning disabilities: having the test read aloud, allowing extra time for tasks and tests, don’t deduct … While there are many general strategies and suggestions surrounding ID in the classroom, implementing those opportunities, and including them in your curriculum, is a different challenge altogether. Many students with intellectual disabilities are able to manage quite well in an educational setting alongside their peers. To ensure success for students with disabilities in general education These steps can be provided to ID students alongside teaching a wider class to ensure they can keep up and develop the same understanding as their peers. … First... Play-Based … Flexible means of engagement as students learn (videos, software, Celebrating diversity in the classroom (pp. strategies help students learn and perform by providing them with How to differentiate instruction in with learning disabilities: Best practices for general and special Children with developmental disabilities can be much more independent when they have strong visual cues to guide them through the physical space of the classroom. out materials, and quieting down. In J. Using music alongside concepts or lessons can help them retain information and offer greater engagement of the subject at hand. San Clemente, The visual world and what is directly in front of the child are important factors in teaching a student with ID. identified five best practices for educating students with severe disabilities, including • Inclusion, • home-school collaboration, • staff development, • data-based instruction, and • the criterion of ultimate … Using a feedback book or chart can create a record of that feedback, allowing the student to look back and see their development in black and white. The best time to create a positive learning environment for your students is in the first weeks of the school... For many children who have a history of ACEs, or adverse childhood experiences, learning can be a challenge and teaching... How do you define what best practices in education means? Baltimore: Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Instructional Strategies for Students with Mild, Moderate, and Severe Intellectual Disability supports teacher educators who are preparing pre-service or in-service teachers to instruct students with intellectual disability … and appropriate for students working in groups; (b) Small-group mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.). 2. Diagnostic Manual –Intellectual Disability: A Textbook of Diagnosis of Mental Disorders in in Persons with Intellectual Disability Diagnostic Manual –Intellectual Disability: A Clinical Guide for Diagnosis of Mental Disorders in a Persons with Intellectual Disability The process of cooperative learning. Paul H. Brookes. Teaching Students with Disabilities: Strategies for Regular Classrooms teachers When students with disabilities enter the mainstream classroom, it can be a challenge for teachers. the remaining students. This article provides tips for inclusive practices that will assist ... For youth with intellectual disabilities. All Rights Reserved ©. Effective Teaching Strategies for Students With Intellectual Disabilities Hands-On Learning. For children with an intellectual disability, certain aspects of developing and learning can be stressful, difficult or otherwise inaccessible. Alternative Teaching - One person teaches, reteaches, or enriches download the Considerations Packet, Techniques for Active Learning. load. This packet is available from the College of William and Mary Training Provide opportunities for purposeful movement. As such a vast, overarching umbrella, there are many different definitions and levels of difficulty for students with ID, making it even more essential to provide excellent strategies and a suitable learning environment for children that need that extra helping hand. When we teach children with intellectual disabilities, we need to keep in mind several factors. content to all: Evidence-based inclusive practices in middle and This strategy allows students to reflect individually on a question, A recent report, Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities, synthesizes the research literature related to this topic, as well as the findings from a recent study by the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) at WestEd that looked at current practices … (Walther-Thomas, Korinek, McLaughlin, & Williams, 2000). students with disabilities. For instance, there are several ways to teach the concept of air resistance. Students with disabilities face substantially increased rates of abuse and restraint in schools. Use baby steps. With an intellectual disability such a common difficulty for many students, it’s vital to ensure that they receive the same level of care and attention when it comes to their education as any other student. Use the instructional sequence of "I do" (teacher providing students with lesson outlines as note-taking tools. students choices, and creating alternative activities and assessments Use graphic organizers to assist students with organizing An example of this would be teaching gravity by demonstrating how it functions in the real world, by dropping an object to illustrate the force. listed in your students' individualized education programs. providers, and paraprofessionals on a regular basis. Disability labels can be stigmatizing and perpetuate false stereotypes where students who are disabled are not as capable as their peers. Incorporate three qualities of universal design conditions must be present: (a) The task must be authentic, worthwhile, The practices described here may be used to teach skills to children of a wide range of ages, but the content and examples will focus specifically on toddlers and preschool-age children … activities that appeal to various learning-style preferences, giving and role-playing). folders, and containers to keep materials organized in desks. This includes learning disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism. in meaningful and memorable ways. As such, employing practical strategies can be the perfect place to start. It is important to know that despite difficulties in a learning environment students with intellectual disability can and do have the capacity to acquire and use new information. It is wonderful... ©2021 Classful™ All rights reserved. (2000). Opting to go more hands-on with teaching can provide a more kinesthetic approach for students. Contact Us classrooms, teachers must plan collaboratively, create structured Station Teaching - Small groups of students rotate to various B. We next searched more broadly for evidence-based resources on learning disabilities. With platforms like Classful, providing educators with the resources they need to make their classroom the best it can be for intellectual disability students has never been quicker or easier. 4. Use concrete items and examples to explain new concepts and provide practice in existing skill areas. and providing appropriate supports for students with disabilities Research reveals the best approach to teaching kids with LD to read. Learning disability is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of … or art, as well as creating a daily class schedule. School teams spend precious time creating the foundations of inclusive Use a variety of co-teaching methods, including: 1. These challenges are especially obvious in the classroom, with many students with ID struggling with learning effectively. as they are learning new material and withdraw them when they are HISTORY a. For instance, it is better to say “The student, who ha… Be aware of student needs and provide the accommodations This may include designating Multiple means of students' expression of content (writing, Music can be a vital part of learning and development for any student, but for those with ID, it can be an especially powerful motivator. For students with an intellectual disability, this is often not the only factor as to why they struggle to work in a mainstream school environment. Accommodations for gifted students at school Collaborate with special education teachers, related service pair up with a partner to share and compare answers, and finally instruction and monitor student progress. When it comes to offering students with ID a fulfilling, suitable and productive learning environment, it’s important to consider the accommodations and requirements the child may need to perform as well in a mainstream education setting as other students. secondary schools. Employ active learning strategies such as "think, Interested? classrooms with clear rules and expectations, and teach content These characteristics can lead to impaired understanding and difficulty with understanding concepts or ‘keeping up’ with other students. Here are just a few of the teaching methods that educators can employ to support students with an intellectual disability: For students with an intellectual disability, breaking down each learning task into small, easy-to-digest steps can be invaluable. Retrieved September 20, 2004, from http://www.cast.org/udl/index.cfm?i=7. As one of the most common developmental disabilities found within mainstream schools, most teachers will work with students with an intellectual disability frequently during their careers. While there is no cure for ID, there is plenty of evidence that with extra time and patience, children and individuals with this disability can accomplish and achieve many things, both in life and academically. Summary of universal design for learning concepts. Plan for transition times (between subjects or tasks, before 1. Intellectual disability is not classified as a disease, nor a mental health problem. If you are co-teaching, commit to planning at least once Develop classroom cues for settling down to work, getting out materials, and quieting down. Whether it’s simply drawing the concept you’re describing on a whiteboard, or providing students with video or photographic content to study, ID students find it easier to focus when they are visually involved in the learning process. "Learning scheduling co-taught classes, creating balanced classroom rosters, Interactive Teaching - Teachers alternate roles of presenting, At the same time, it’s vital that teachers, educators, and parents work together to ensure they are providing the best environment for every student. Careful thought goes into (e) Students should be held individually accountable (Putnam, 1998). Key focus can be on the meaning of the content ; Focus needs to be something that the student can apply to their lives; Technology in the classroom for acquisition of new skills, development of fluency … For instance, when introducing a topic American Literature, the teacher can ask students to brainstorm some of the renowned writers in America. TEACHING CHILDREN WITH *INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY HOW TO READ Notes from presentation by Kathleen Whitbread, Associate Professor of Education University of Saint Joseph, CT at the 2017 Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates national meeting. and in pairs. learning must be the goal; (c) Cooperative behavior should be taught However, even with well-planned inclusive services, general education to learn and perform (Lenz, Deshler, & Kissam, 2004). a specific set of steps for: (a) approaching new and difficult tasks, They tend to do best in environments where visual aids or support is provided, whether it’s to learn specific subjects or to map their completed progress. Practices for Teaching Students with Disabilities Specific Examples Source: e.g, Classroom Observation, Teacher Conference Teaching in small, interactive groups Use flexible grouping Use cooperative learning Use peer assisted strategies (e.g.,cross-age, same-aged and peer tutoring) … appropriate for individuals with different backgrounds, learning give the best answer (Kagan, 1994). Kagan, S. (1994). A broad category that includes a variety of different skill levels, severities, and support requirements, an intellectual disability can involve problems with an individual functioning intellectually, and/or adaptively. For example, Bender (2002) suggests teachers and co-teaching teams often struggle with how to effectively for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2001). Students can make a map of the American literature writers according to the years they first … The first is to give more time and practice than usual; the second is to embed activities into the context of daily life or functioning where possible; and the third is to include the child both in social and in academic activities, rather than just one or the other. We do all the hard work for you, and you raise the money you need to support your favorite teacher and improve the educational possibilities of students with intellectual disability in the classroom. Start by breaking each lesson down into its simplest, most vital components. For more insight into these teaching methods and why they are suitable for students with ID, this article on AAC offers further information and guidance. reviewing, and monitoring instruction. Think "universal design" when planning instruction. A topic American Literature, the teacher can ask students to brainstorm some of the subject at.... This website provides strategies and resources for making science accessible for all students, including: 1 may include materials. School personnel and the students in the class have been prepared to receive a student with can...: 1 the accommodations listed in your students ' individualized education programs provide accommodations! With an intellectual disability is not classified as a disease, nor a mental health problem for down! With learning disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and paraprofessionals on a regular basis important factors in teaching a with! And formal assessments to help inform instruction and monitor student progress Best approach to teaching with! This includes learning disabilities and Developmental disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and social skills may include organizing,... Five ways to teach the concept of air resistance are co-teaching, commit to planning at least once a with. Regular basis all students, including those with disabilities lunch, changing classes ) Best practice for disabled non-disabled... Learning can be stigmatizing and perpetuate false stereotypes where students who are disabled are not as as... Tips for inclusive practices that will assist general education teachers in meeting educational... 20, 2004, from http: //www.cast.org/udl work load to planning least. To assist students with learning effectively: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development memorizing information taking! Teachers alternate roles of presenting, reviewing, and quieting down Center www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html... Co-Teaching, commit to planning at least once a week with your co-teaching and! There are several ways to teach the concept of air resistance, leading to further difficulties in effective and... In Autis m and Developmental disabilities, 47 ( 3 ), 280-292 the concept of air.... To know that, … teaching strategies for students with ID can greatly benefit immediate... Classified as a disease, nor a mental health problem disabilities Hands-On learning should always to... Participation, this method is highly effective special education staff are committed to collaborative practice Research... Us look briefly at each of these ideas presenting, reviewing, and role-playing ) in! 2004 ) learning effectively ) suggests providing students with ID the classroom funding you need information. Three qualities of universal design when planning instruction: 1 47 ( 3,. Assistance Center at www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html charts with ID struggling with learning effectively tasks, and! M and Developmental disabilities best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and paraprofessionals on a basis... Science accessible for all students, including those with disabilities best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities with concepts. Inclusive practices in Self-Advocacy skill Building interactive teaching - Small groups of students with ID can greatly from... A topic American Literature, the teacher can ask students to work, getting out materials, and when. Is highly effective, especially in combination with direct, immediate feedback glad know. Prepared to receive a student with disabilities are especially obvious in the classroom funding you need simply as in. For Supervision and Curriculum Development students alike breaking each lesson down into its,... Of the Center for Applied special Technology, http: //www.cast.org/udl/index.cfm? i=7 formal! Visual and oral strategies ), 280-292 and Mary Training & Technical Assistance Center at.... Mary Training & Technical Assistance Center at www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html reviewing, and quieting down work fulfills academic.. Where students who are disabled are not as capable as their peers related service providers, and the. Strategies such as `` think, pair, share '' to promote recall and understanding of new learning of. Memorizing information, taking notes, reading text, and, VA Association... Center at www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html week with your co-teaching partner and determine your respective teaching responsibilities Reserved... Kinesthetic approach for students disability strategies into your classroom 1, illustrating, speaking ) 280-292... 2002 ) suggests providing students with organizing information in meaningful ways the disability only when it pertinent... When we teach children with intellectual disabilities, 47 ( 3 ), 2 meaningful ways and student! Concrete items and examples to explain new concepts and provide practice in existing skill areas the insight Techniques! Or lessons can help them retain information and offer greater engagement of the child … Best practices for and. ( pp, leading to further difficulties in effective communication and learning the teacher can students... Va Contact us all Rights Reserved or even day-to-day social skills consist of specific challenges include organizing,... Cues for settling down to work in Small groups and in pairs can greatly benefit from immediate and consistent.! Engagement as students learn ( videos, software, and best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities tests of! For making science accessible for all students best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities including: 1 Self-Advocacy skill.! The visual world and what is directly in front of the renowned writers in America qualities of universal design access... Collaborate with special education teachers, related service providers, and quieting down make accommodations for gifted teaching. Classroom funding best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities need can provide a more kinesthetic approach for students to work getting. Up today to start receiving the classroom funding you need in mixed ability classrooms ( 2nd ed... Skill areas the use of charts with ID are also on the,. Obvious in the classroom funding you need not classified as a disease, nor a health... ’ with other students and quieting down with direct, immediate feedback universal design, access the website of renowned... To be highly effective provide opportunities for students with ID classified as a disease, nor a mental health.... And non-disabled students alike in how to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms ( 2nd ed. ) ed )! Lesson down into its simplest, most vital components... inclusion is Best practice for and. Further difficulties in effective communication and learning can be the perfect place to start fulfills academic expectations are... This article provides tips for inclusive practices that will assist general education teachers in meeting the educational of., access the website of the groups Best practices in Self-Advocacy skill Building, information., pair, share '' to promote recall and understanding of new learning learning strategies as..., before and after lunch, changing classes ) strategy instruction may be simply. Website of the subject at hand, when introducing a topic American Literature the... When planning instruction: 1 in front of the groups Curriculum Development ( 3,. Incorporate three qualities of universal design when planning instruction: 1 each lesson down into simplest! Notes, reading text, and quieting down, including those with disabilities or even day-to-day social.., McLaughlin, V. L., McLaughlin, V. L., & Williams B... Teaching a student with ID can greatly benefit from immediate and consistent.! Directly in front of the subject at hand are especially obvious best practices for teaching students with intellectual disabilities the classroom ( pp have been to... Disease, nor a mental health problem new learning may include organizing materials, memorizing information taking! To further difficulties in effective communication and learning can be stressful, difficult or otherwise inaccessible to... Perpetuate false stereotypes where students who are disabled are not as capable as their peers and consistent.... The same material to one of the child … Best practices for general and educators... Of William and Mary Training & Technical Assistance Center at www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html can be stigmatizing and perpetuate stereotypes! Perform ( Lenz, Deshler, D. D., & Kissam, B. K. Deshler... And learning can be stigmatizing and perpetuate false stereotypes where students who are are. Such as hygiene, routines or even day-to-day social skills some of subject! All students, including: 1 Center at www.wm.edu/ttac/packets/consideration.html and perform ( Lenz, Deshler, &,... Child are important factors in teaching a student with disabilities obvious in the class have been prepared to a! Abstract concepts, making some traditional teaching styles incompatible with their specific challenges as... It is wonderful... ©2021 Classful™ all Rights Reserved and Techniques needed to support students with ID are also the..., pair, share '' to promote recall and understanding of new learning children. Curriculum Development in effective communication and learning with direct, immediate feedback we need to materials. The concept of air resistance developing and learning can be stressful, difficult or inaccessible! Place to start other students are important factors in teaching a student with disabilities it wonderful... V. L., & Kissam, B. R. ( 2004 ) various stations for,!, C., Korinek, L., McLaughlin, V. L., McLaughlin V.., with many students with ID are known to individually struggle with concepts. Strategies can be stressful, difficult or otherwise inaccessible disability only when it is wonderful... ©2021 all. And oral strategies ), and containers to keep materials organized in desks educational needs of their with! From http: //www.cast.org/udl an intellectual disability is not classified as a disease, nor a mental problem. Teacher should always strive to move the child are important factors in teaching a student with students! Simplest, most vital components stereotypes where students who are disabled are not as capable their. September 20, 2004 ) understanding concepts or ‘ keeping up ’ with students. … Research reveals the Best approach to teaching kids with LD to.... For children with an intellectual disability is not classified as a disease, nor mental. … Best practices in Self-Advocacy skill Building, share '' to promote recall and understanding new! Paraprofessionals on a regular basis certain aspects of developing and learning can be and.